Deformation of the crust

  •    the state of balance between the thickness of the crust and the depth at which it rides on the asthenosphere is called isostacy
  • the increasing weight of mountains causes the crust to sink
  • the force that changes the shape and volume of rocks is stress
  • the type of stress that squeezes rock together is compression
  • the type of stress that pulls rocks apart, making them thinner, is tension
  • shearing means bends, twists, or breaks rocks.
  • high pressure and high temperature will cause rocks to deform
  • upcurved folds in rock are called anticlines
  • downcurved folds in rock are called synclines
  • folds in which both limbs remain horizontal are called monoclines
  • when no movement occurs along the sides of a break in a rock, the break is called a fracture
  • when a fault is not vertical, the rock above the fault plane makes up the footwall
  • a nearly vertical fault in which the rock on either side of the fault p;ane moves
  • the largest mountain systems are part of still larger systems called ranges
  • mount st. helens in washington state is an example of a volcanic mountain
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